5+21, Tarot, Demogorgone, Amorosa Visione and Boccaccio and gods

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Castle Nuove Naples
Image

Amorosa visione (1342, revised c. 1365) is a narrative poem by Boccaccio, full of echoes of the Divine Comedy and consisting of 50 canti in terza rima. It tells of a dream in which the poet sees, in sequence, the triumphs of Wisdom, Earthly Glory, Wealth, Love, all-destroying Fortune (and her servant Death), and thereby becomes worthy of the now heavenly love of Fiammetta.
and
It is inevitable to point out clear affinities and non-latent influence with the almost contemporary "Triumphs" of Petrarch. Furthermore, the precise description of the frescoes has allowed some critics to identify the Boccacciano castle with Castel Nuovo in Naples, frescoed by Giotto.
.... appear in the following text

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Recently (2022/11/19) I wrote at viewtopic.php?p=25583#p25583 ....
Demogorgon and Boccaccio

https://www.sueddeutsche.de/leben/dem-g ... -1.4678228
automatic translation .... https://www-sueddeutsche-de.translate.g ... r_pto=wapp

https://library.oapen.org/bitstream/han ... sequence=1
Paolo Cherchi: The Inventors of Things in Boccaccio’s De genealogia deorum gentilium ... page 244
Giuseppe Mazzotta: Boccaccio’s Critique of Petrarch .... page 270
The second text (Mazzotta) contains also the word "Trionfi"
After evoking Eternity and Nature, Boccaccio turns to the phantasmagoria of the natural sequence of created beings. From the Earth – the eighth of the nine daughters of Demogorgon – are born five children, among whom is Fama, love, death (Erebus), and time. It is difficult to resist recalling the ordered, progressive, hierarchical ascent of Petrarch’s Trionfi (love, time, fame, death, and Eternity), which Boccaccio dismantles. The neat rank ordering is displaced, and with it, Petrarch’s luminous self-consciousness plunges into the opacity of the mythology of Demogorgon who transcends all order and all individualities.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Demogorgon
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theodontius
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_of_Perugia
Pronapides the Athenian ....
http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/tex ... ides-bio-1
https://topostext.org/people/10138

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Added:
We had the Demogorgon earlier, in 2011, in context of "Trionfo de Sogni 1566 - 21 Trionfi with gods"
search.php?keywords=demogorgon

MikeH recently directed me to the "Amorosa Visione", according Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amorosa_visione
...
Amorosa visione (1342, revised c. 1365) is a narrative poem by Boccaccio, full of echoes of the Divine Comedy and consisting of 50 canti in terza rima. It tells of a dream in which the poet sees, in sequence, the triumphs of Wisdom, Earthly Glory, Wealth, Love, all-destroying Fortune (and her servant Death), and thereby becomes worthy of the now heavenly love of Fiammetta. The triumphs include mythological, classical and contemporary medieval figures. Their moral, cultural and historical architecture was without precedent, and led Petrarch to create his own Trionfi on the same model. Among contemporaries Giotto and Dante stand out, the latter being celebrated above any other artist, ancient or modern.
Italian wikipedia:
https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amorosa_visione
automatic translation:
https://it-m-wikipedia-org.translate.go ... r_pto=wapp
A part of it ...
Plot

The protagonist, who has been struck by Cupid 's arrows of love for Fiammetta, falls asleep and dreams of wandering through deserted places when he meets a woman who invites him to follow him and leads him to a castle which has two doors , the one on the right it is small and narrow and leads to virtue , while the one on the left is large and wide and promises wealth and worldly glory.
Allowing himself to be persuaded by two young men, he chooses the widest door and goes through numerous rooms on whose walls are frescoed the triumphs of Wisdom , Glory, the Avars , Love , Fortune and a kind woman . Thus he convinces himself " that these well-earned are truly / those who put each one under the grip of vices " [2] and follows his guide so that it leads him to see things " glorious and eternal " [3] .
First he sees a marble fountain on which stand out four caryatids symbolically representing the four cardinal virtues , three small statues of women, symbol of pure love, carnal love and venal love and three animal heads , a lion , a bull and a wolf symbolizing pride , lust and avarice .
He then enters a garden where graceful women stroll and he recognizes Fiammetta among them. The two walk away in a " loco (...) all alone " [4] but when he tries to possess the desired woman, the dream vanishes. Awakened, he thus finds himself next to the guide who scolds him and tells him that he will be able to achieve what he desires only by following virtue and leaving worldly goods.
The poem ends with an invocation to the beloved woman to be compassionate towards him : [5] .

"Therefore, kind and valiant woman,
of beauty as a source of sunlight,
look at the flame that hides
inside my chest, and extinguish it
by being pitying towards me"
The descriptions contradict each other. Another Italian wikipedia page ... automatic translation ....
https://it-m-wikipedia-org.translate.go ... r_pto=wapp
It is a poem in tercets divided into fifty cantos.
The actual narration is preceded by a proem consisting of three sonnets which, taken together, form an immense acrostic in the sense that they are composed of words whose letters (vowels and consonants) correspond in an orderly and progressive manner to the respective initial letters of each tercet of the poem.

The story describes the dreamlike experience of Boccaccio who, under the guidance of a kind woman, arrives at a castle, on whose walls allegorical scenes are represented featuring illustrious characters from the past. In more detail, the triumphs of Wisdom, Glory, Love and Wealth are represented in one room, and that of Fortune in the other.
It is inevitable to point out clear affinities and non-latent influence with the almost contemporary "Triumphs" of Petrarch. Furthermore, the precise description of the frescoes has allowed some critics to identify the Boccacciano castle with Castel Nuovo in Naples, frescoed by Giotto. After having dwelt with display of erudition on the beauties of the frescoes, Boccaccio passes into a garden where he meets Madonna Fiammetta and tries to abuse her in her sleep.

The timely awakening of the woman and the fact that she reminds the poet of the danger of the imminent return of her guide prevent the act from taking place. In fact, shortly thereafter the "gentle woman" returns stating that the poet will be able to achieve full possession of her beloved by leading a life marked by the virtuous precepts whose learning had been the essential purpose of the journey.

The work owes several debts to Dante and the Divine Comedy, especially as regards the experience of the "Visio in somnis" and the guidance of a "gentle woman", but the strong tendency towards emancipation of Boccaccio should also be underlined : while Dante follows in all respects the dictates of Beatrice, Boccaccio in numerous cases rebels against the patronage of the guide, for example in preferring the wide road of worldliness, with its fatuous attractions to the narrow and impervious one that leads to virtue. The sublime tone contrasts with the comedy of certain situations (primarily the meeting with Fiammetta) so that some critics have thought of a parodic intent on the part of Boccaccio towards the didactic allegorical poem.
Huck
http://trionfi.com

Re: 5+21, Tarot, Demogorgone, Amorosa Visione and Boccaccio and gods

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Tarot has a structure with 5 suits ... AND ... 21 trumps

Tarot has a structure with 5 suits ... AND ... 21 trumps ... AND ... the Fool

Tarot has a structure with 5 suits ... AND ... 21 trumps ... AND ... the Demogorgone

Tarot has a structure with 5 suits ... AND ... 21 gods ... AND ... the Demogorgone

Tarot has a structure with 4 suits ... AND ... there is a 5th suit with 21 trumps and a Fool

The trumps can be seen as gods in the game

The oldest card deck similar to Tarot, from which we had heard of, is the Michelino deck with 16 gods made c1418-1425.

In the Minchiate Francesi deck of ca. 1650-60 there is a card called Chaos.

Image


Etteilla had a card, which he called Chaos or Etteilla or LE QUESTIONNANT

Image


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Boccaccio wrote in a time, when a start of the playing cards might have existed or might have not existed. Boccaccio died December 1375. In spring 1377 playing cards existed in Florence in considerable number, so much, that many persons thought it a good idea to prohibit the games with them.

Boccaccio used in his works 5 Trionfi in a manner, that some researchers consider these as a model, that inspired Petrarca to write his poems for 6 Trionfi. The deciding work was probably "Amorosa Visione".

Boccaccio wrote about gods in 14 books. .... https://la.wikisource.org/wiki/De_genea ... _gentilium
I had some studies with with Liber I.

This shall be the content of Liber I in 34 chapters (in the case, that I understood it) :
Eternity seems to be the Demogorgone himself.
Chaos is somehow the wife of Demogorgon (chapters 1+2, Eternity and Chaos).
Together they have 9 children (The first 7 are described in chapters 3-7, chapter 5 presents the 3 goddesses of destiny).
Terra (probably = Gaia) is the child Nr. 8 (in chapter 8) and she has 5 children (in chapters 9-13).
In chapter 14 appears the younger brother of Terra, Heribo (Heribi). 9th child of the Demogorgone.
His offspring is presented in 20 chapters (chapter 15-34).
Content of Liber I .... according ... https://la.wikisource.org/wiki/De_genea ... ber_primus
1 Prohemium.
2 CAP. I. De Eternitate.
3 CAP. II. De Chaos.
4 CAP. III. De Litigio primo Demogorgonis filio.
5 CAP. IV. De Pane secundo Demogorgonis filio.
6 CAP. V. De Cloto, Lachesi et Atropu filiabus Demogorgonis.
7 CAP. VI. De Polo sexto Demogorgonis filio.
8 CAP. VII. De Phytone septimo Demogorgonis filio.
9 CAP. VIII. De Terra ex filiis Demogorgonis octava
10 CAP. IX. De Nocte prima Terre filia. ............... 5 children of Terra (= Gaia)
11 CAP. X. De Fama secunda ex filiis Terre.
12 CAP. XI. De Tartaro IIIo Terre filio.
13 CAP. XII. De Tagete IIIIo Terre filio.
14 CAP. XIII. De Antheo Vo Terre filio.
15 CAP. XIV. De Herebo VIIIIo Demogorgonis filio, cui fuerunt filii XXI.
16 CAP. XV. De Amore primo Herebi filio. ............... 20/21 children of Herebo (= Erebos)
17 CAP. XVI. De Gratia Herebi et Noctis secunda filia.
18 CAP. XVII. De Labore tertio Herebi filio.
19 CAP. XVII. De Invidentia seu Invidia IIIIa Herebi filia.
20 CAP. XIX. De Metu Vo Herebi filio.
21 CAP. XX. Est et Dolus, ut Tullio placet, filius Noctis et Herebi.
22 CAP. XXI. De Fraude VIIa Herebi filia.
23 CAP. XXII. De Pertinacia Herebi VIIIa filia.
24 CAP. XXIII. De Egestate Herebi filia VIIIIa.
25 CAP. XXIV. De Miseria Herebi Xa filia.
26 CAP. XXV. De Fame XIa Herebi filia.
27 CAP. XXVI. De querela Herebi filia XIIa.
28 CAP. XXVII. De Morbo XIIIo Herebi filio.
29 CAP. XXVIII. De Senectute Herebi XIIIIa filia.
30 CAP. XXIX. De Pallore Herebi filio XVo.
31 CAP. XXX. De Tenebra XVIa Herebi filia.
32 CAP. XXXI. De Somno Herebi filio XVIIo.
33 CAP. XXXII. De Morte XVIIIa filia Herebi.
34 CAP. XXXIII. De Carone Herebi filio XVIIIIo.
35 CAP. XXXIV. De Die Herebi XXa filia.
There is something strange ... somehow there are 21 filii, but the last seems to be the 20th child. Heribo seems to be the Latin form of Erebus or Erebos.
Erebus means "darkness".
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erebus
Huck
http://trionfi.com

Re: 5+21, Tarot, Demogorgone, Amorosa Visione and Boccaccio and gods

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The "Demiurge" (somehow the "Demogorgon") appears in the "Timaios" of Plato.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timaeus_(dialogue)
The word Demiurge had some development before Plato
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Demiurge

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The numbers 5 and 21 appear in the Boccaccio work about Greek-Roman Mythologie in Liber 1 and this is also the major source of the Demogorgon.
Terra has there 5 children - brother Heribo alias Erebus has there 20/21 children.
The number 5 appears also as 5 Trionfi in the Amorosa Visione.

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The numbers 5 and 21 meet in the description of Tarot decks, which have 5 suits and the 5th suit has 21 trumps.
And a Fool of course, which somehow has good chances to be considered as the Demogorgon.
There is some indication, that old Trionfi decks hadn't 21 trumps (according the 5x14 theory and some other ideas). The first sure deck construction with 5 suits and 21 trumps in the 5th suit is known in the Tarocchi poem of Matteo Maria Boiardo. I saw, that Boiardo shall have had also some occupation with the Demogorgon figure. I still have to search this passage. Possibly it is this:

Boiardo: Orlando Innamorato
Book II: Canto XIII: In the Realms of Morgana and Alcina
24-30: The Count leaves with the youth, Fiordelisa, and Bardino
Orlando turned, and told her to attend:
‘Morgana, come, your master now address:
For I’d have you swear by Demogorgon
Mighty ruler of the Faery kingdom,

That you will never harm or hinder me.’
This Demogorgon (you may be aware)
Commands and judges the realm of Faery,
And he does as he wishes with all there.

At nightfall, o’er the mountains and the sea,
He rides, on a giant ram, through the air,
And the phantom, and the witch, and the fay,
He lashes, with live snakes, at break of day;

For if such are seen on earth, in dawn light,
When they are all forbidden neath the sky,
He whips them, furiously, with all his might,
So that they truly wish that they could die.

Now he chains them neath the sea, far from sight,
Now barefoot on the wind they walk on high,
Now he leads them through the fiery blaze,
Tormenting them, in these and other ways.

And so, Orlando made the Faery swear
By Demogorgon, who was her master,
Threatening the Fay, till she did not dare
Do aught but what he said; she, thereafter,

Swiftly fled, midst the shadows, to her lair,
Hiding deep beneath the lake, to recover,
While the Count and Ziliante, at their ease,
Returned to Fiordelisa, on her knees
https://www.poetryintranslation.com/PIT ... toXIII.php

Well, if that is all, then it's not very impressive.
In an opera "Orlando finto pazzi", which was created by Antonio Vivaldi in Venice 1714 with motifs from Boiardo's "Orlando innamorato", the work starts in the temple of Demogorgon and Pluto.

I translated (with the help of a translation machine) parts of the German language Wikipedia to Demogorgon. The article has connected some appearances of the word Demogorgon in literature.
Demogorgon is a mythological figure that does not derive from the mythological Greco-Roman classics, but Boccaccio the xiv - th century in his Genealogia deorum gentilium ( Genealogy of the Pagan Gods ).
According to Boccaccio, Demogorgon would be the father of all gods, a "pale old man covered with damp mold, living in the bowels of the earth amid misty darkness". The source of Boccaccio would be a certain Theodontius, and he found his name in a commentary by the grammarian Lactantius Placidus (c. 450) of the Thebaid of Stace . It is probably a Latin corruption of the Greek Δημιουργόν, the demiurge , creator of the world of the Neoplatonists . After Boccaccio, he had an important posterity in the works of Renaissance mythographers and alchemists .

Literary posterity
“Demogorgon obtained a real literary fortune […] but at the expense of gross simplifications. In the French religious theater of the xvth century, it is sometimes cited as the ancient fallen god or the devil incarnate, in which Rabelais collaborates in the third and fourth books . Teofilo Folengo presents him as an old trickster, pretending to be Pasquino and wanting to enter Paradise , "where he came on his skinny mule and so enchanted that we might have his two flanks together", but Saint Peter bluntly expels him (Maccaronic) History tr. Fr. 1600). Folengorgon explains that Demogorgon "is used to beating the living fairies with his tail and riding witches as donkeys", referring parodically to the role attributed to him by Boiardo and Ariosto . In the Orlando Innamorato , the hero threatens the fairy Morgana, invoking the terrible name of the ruthless master of fairies and witches [...]. Ariosto places his palace in the Himalayas , where the Fairy Council meets every five years ( Cinque canti I).
This magical and demonic tradition will have some success in Elizabethan literature and French literature of the xviith century ( 1610 Mary entrance of Médicis in Paris , to Regnier, Quinault libretto for the opera Roland to the music of Lully. In the xviiith century , Voltaire and Encyclopedia , according to The Mythology Handbook, mention Abbe Banier . But it is Shelley in Prometheus Unbound who symbolizes the liberating metamorphosis of tyranny, with Jupiter recognizing him afresh as his pristine status as the primordial and eternal principle."
He is quoted by the English poets Spencer ( The Faerie Queene ), Marlowe , Dryden , Milton , Peacock and Shelley ( Prometheus Unbound ).
He appears in a novel by Voltaire , Le Songe de Plato (1756), in Moby Dick (1851), where he is metaphorically compared to the white whale, in a poem by Hugo , Au Cheval (1865), as well as in a novel by Dan Simmons , Olympos (2006).
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The wedding festivities of 1565/66 also use the numbers 5 and 21.

There are 5 dreams and 21 Trionfi. The festivities had some clear relations to the poet Boccaccio.
Recently I wrote about this:
viewtopic.php?p=25591#p25591 .... and the following posts

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There is another meeting of the numbers 5 and 21:

Gaia and Uranus have (somehow) 21 children.
12 Titans + 3 Cyclopes, each with one eye only + 3 Hecatoncheires, each with 50 heads and 100 hands. This are 18.
When Cronos cut off the genital of Uranos, then some drops of bood did fall from heaven on earth. This caused the birth of the Erinyes, godesses of revenge and these were 3: Alecto or Alekto ("endless anger"), Megaera ("jealous rage"), and Tisiphone or Tilphousia ("vengeful destruction"). These are 3 and 3 + 18 makes
21.
Further there were not counted giants and not counted meliae .... "According to Hesiod, from the blood that spilled from Uranus onto the Earth came forth the Giants, the Erinyes (the avenging Furies), the Meliae (the ash-tree nymphs). From the genitals in the sea came forth Aphrodite."

Gaia, disappointed of Uranus, had 5 children with Pontos (a god with relation to the sea, especially to the Black Sea):
1. Nereus, a man with 50 daughters
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nereus
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nereids
2. Thaumas, had the daughters Iris, Arke and 2-4 Harpies
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thaumas
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iris_(mythology)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arke
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harpy
3. and 4. Phorkys, male, and Ceto, female, had together a lot of monsters as children.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phorcys
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ceto
5. Eurybia, who married Crius, a Titan and had 3 sons with him.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eurybia_(mythology)
Huck
http://trionfi.com

Re: 5+21, Tarot, Demogorgone, Amorosa Visione and Boccaccio and gods

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Happy New Year

I wrote ..
Gaia, disappointed of Uranus, had 5 children with Pontos (a god with relation to the sea, especially to the Black Sea):
1. Nereus, a man with 50 daughters
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nereus
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nereids
2. Thaumas, had the daughters Iris, Arke and 2-4 Harpies
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thaumas
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iris_(mythology)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arke
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harpy
3. and 4. Phorkys, male, and Ceto, female, had together a lot of monsters as children.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phorcys
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ceto
5. Eurybia, who married Crius, a Titan and had 3 sons with him.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eurybia_(mythology)
I once, about 35 years ago, got the idea, that these 5 gods might present the 5 elements, Water-Air-Fire-Earth-Aither. Nereus is a water god, the children of Thaumas have wings, this should mean that Thaumas had something to do with Air. About the other 3 I got no clear opinion, but I suspected "5 elements".

Recently I got this info:
AITHER (Aether) was the primordial god (protogenos) of light and the bright, blue ether of the heavens. His mists filled the space between the solid dome of the sky (ouranos) and the transparent mists of the earth-bound air (khaos, aer). In the evening his mother Nyx drew her dark veil across the sky, obscuring the ether and bringing night. In the morn his sister and wife Hemera dispersed night's mist to reveal the shining blue ether of day. In the ancient cosmogonies night and day were regarded as elements separate from the sun.

Aither was one of the three "airs". The middle air was aer or khaos, a colourless mist which enveloped the mortal world. The lower air was erebos, the mists of darkness, which enveloped the dark places beneath the earth and the realm of the dead. The third was the upper air of aither, the mist of light and blue of the heavenly ether. The aither enveloped the mountain peaks, clouds, stars, sun and moon.

Aether's female counterpart was Aithre (Aethra), Titaness of the clear blue sky and mother of the sun and moon.
and
ENCYCLOPEDIA
AETHER (Aithêr), a personified idea of the mythical cosmogonies. According to that of Hyginus (Fab. Pref. p. 1, ed. Staveren), he was, together with Night, Day, and Erebus, begotten by Chaos and Caligo (Darkness). According to that of Hesiod (Theog. 124), Aether was the son of Erebus and his sister Night, and a brother of Day. (Comp. Phornut. De Nat. Deor. 16.) The children of Aether and Day were Land, Heaven, and Sea, and from his connexion with the Earth there sprang all the vices which destroy the human race, and also the Giants and Titans. (Hygin. Fab. Prof. p. 2, &c.) These accounts shew that, in the Greek cosmogonies, Aether was considered as one of the elementary substances out of which the Universe was formed. In the Orphic hymns(4) Aether appears as the soul of the world, from which all life emanates, an idea which was also adopted by some of the early philosophers of Greece. In later times Aether was regarded as the wide space of Heaven, the residence of the gods, and Zeus as the Lord of the Aether, or Aether itself personified. (Pacuv. ap. Cic. de Nat. Deor. ii. 36, 40; Lucret. v. 499; Virg. Aen. xii. 140, Georg. ii. 325.)
Source: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology.
Both from .... https://www.theoi.com/Protogenos/Aither.html

From this I assume, that the male Phorkys presents the lower air (= later Fire) and the female Ceto the element earth. And Eurybia (also female) who married inside the family of the Titans the Titan Krios [or Crius], who had 3 sons, from which one (Astraios ot Astraeus) married the goddess Eos, from whom he got between others the 4 winds Boreas (North), Euros (South-East), Zephyr (West) und Notos (South). Mother Eos (goddess of morning dawn) likely stood for the Eastern direction (the sun appears in the East in the morning). Thaumas should have stood for the middle air.

Astraios or Astaeus
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Astraeus
"They had many sons, including the four Anemoi ("winds"): Boreas, Notus, Eurus, and Zephyrus,[4] and the five Astra Planeta ("Wandering Stars", i.e., planets): Phainon (Saturn), Phaethon (Jupiter), Pyroeis (Mars), Eosphoros/Hesperos (Venus),[ and Stilbon (Mercury). A few sources mention another daughter, Astraea, the goddess of innocence and, occasionally, justice.
He is also sometimes associated with Aeolus, the Keeper of the Winds, since winds often increase around dusk."
Here is a list of the gods following the Theogony of Hesiod with some comments.
https://www.theoi.com/TreeHesiod.html

Theogony of Hesiod translated to English
https://www.theoi.com/Text/HesiodTheogony.html

Hesiod .... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hesiod
Huck
http://trionfi.com