Additionally, Lazzarelli’s Book II lists five gods, possibly in reference to the five elements—[speculating] Pluto (earth); Neptune (water); Juno (air); Athene (fire); and Victoria/Nike (ether). Do you have any further information insofar as Lazzarelli’s portrayal of these gods?
If your question is about the 5 last pictures in Lazzarelli:
(look in the menu)
There are also Lazzarelli pictures, though in not very fine state, and as far we were able to get them some years ago. The quality of the pictures is bad, not in reality, but just, what we have:
The 4 gods beside Athena are all "on chariot", Athena herself should be similar to 28 Philosophy, Mantegna Tarocchi.
Which would give Athena likely the central "aither" role. Similar like poetry reigns Apoll and 9 Muses and Musica the spheres (Mantegna Tarocchi 26+27).
"3 sons of Kronos" (Juno replacing her husband Jupiter, who was already as used in the spheres)
Nike or Victory,, cause she stood for the chariot.
Athena, cause she jumped out of the head of Zeus.
Lazzarelli (poet) had Poetry/Musica ambitions. In that time of his career (1471) he was also interested in astronomy.
It's a deciding point, if Lazzarelli in 1471 knew the Mantegna Tarocchi as a complete edition (in other words: did the Mantegna Tarocchi with 50 numbered motifs exist ?), or if he just played a little bit around with some (not numbered) pictures, which he had found in a Venetian store.
Arthur M. Hind had given arguments, that some motifs of the Mantegna Tarocchi appeared 1467/68 ('however, all not framed or numbered) and from this he concluded, that the Mantegna Tarocchi was fixed and ready around 1465.
However, the situation is so, that one can turn the table, and assume, that just Lazzarelli gathered some motifs in the boo store 1471, and then formed first his 27 pictures book (with 23 Mantegna Tarocchi motifs) and second (later) the 50-numbered-pictures model (or, alternative "somebody", who knew Lazzarelli's work and pictures, made it).
Studies on these conditions led to the situation, that this other reading of the facts led to a complex theory, and Hind's assumption had led to nothing (cause there is no artist, who might be presented).
The argumentation for this is very complex.
The printer Sweynheim, who also had the commission to care for a complex book edition (Ptolemy) with many difficult copperplate engravings (he got this commission in 1473), might have had also the control about the Mantegna Tarocchi production around 1475, likely made for the Jubilee year in Rome (Sweynheim worked in Rome, mostly for papal commissions).
Lazzarelli likely hadn't been in Rome before 1475, but likely Lorenzo Zane (an archbishop of Spalato, with astrological interests, used by papal circles often in military or "difficult" commissions) who knew Lazzarelli and was an important man in Rome, was active.
Lorenzo Zane had been in leading function on a military operation in summer/autumn 1474. The military situation was decided by the duke of Urbino, Montefeltro (who later had the Lazzarelli edition). Montefeltro went then to Rome, became highest general of the Chiesa and got the duke title. Lazzarelli got 50 ducats from Montefeltro. Montefeltro had the Lazzarelli-manuscript, dedicated to the "duke of Urbino" and he also used other Mantegna Tarocchi motifs in another work in his library.
Lazzarelli (a poet in the province before) became then (in or after 1475) a "poet in Rome", as part of the Accademia Romana. Lorenzo Zane became involved in a scandal in highest papal circles in winter 1476/77 (very serious trouble between Girolamo Riario, husband of Caterina Sforza) and cardinal Giuliano della Rovere, 30 years later pope Julius, both the very important nephews of the scandal-pope Sixtus IV), and Lazzarelli later expressed disappointment about him.
The context of the trouble is rather dark. But some time later some persons were involved in the assassination attempt on Lorenzo di Medici.
Sacrobosco Model: Chronico, Cosmico, Helical
As I understand it, “Chronico” relates to the “poetic” (?) ascent/descent of (6) astrological signs at sunset, “Cosmico” to the ascent/descent of (6) signs at sunrise, and “Helical” to the emergence or cloaking of signs due to their relative proximity to the Sun.
I’m really having a hard time wrapping my mind around this. Originally, I understood “Chronico” as “Time” in contrast to “Cosmico” as “World”. As such, the iconography of the ouroborus for Chronico and globe for Cosmico made sense to me. Can you explain how you understand these items in terms of the decade?
Btw, I couldn’t help noticing a certain pattern on this forum—Ross as a goat head with the motto, “Pedant”; Huck in fool’s cap with ass ears; and Mike as a skull. Very Shakespearean or Bruno-esque.
Astronomy (and connected themes like geography) had the character of a "big fashion" and got public attention. "Wild Rome", often without pope, had its own ways to react. One rather relevant feature of the 60ies and also later was the flourishing Accademia Romana. This developed with Pope Pius II, but things changed, when Paul became pope in 1464. He reduced the costs by reducing the scribes, and naturally many of the intellectuals lived from these jobs, for which they often had paid before for getting them. So he naturally wasn't loved, and intellectuals have ways to express their critique.
In 1468 there was from the pope's side a major attack on the "intellectual life", which brought some members of he Accademia Romana into prison, where they occasionally were also tortured. The accusations were various, between them also misconduct in sexual behavior (sodomy).
The pope spared a lot of money, which he dedicated for a crusade, which in his time never took place.
When Sixtus became pope, he had a lot of money, which he could distribute, especially to his nephews. The family had a relative poor background in Savano (near Genova, rather outside of the Italian mainstream). In his time Sixtus was able to establish the Riario/Rovere family in Italy in a long lasting way, from an unimportant half French position before.
Sixtus restored the Accademia Romana, so Sixtus got the intellectuals on his side. The nephews threw the money out of the windows, so they were loved. He organized a crusade, which was celebrated as a victory, but had not much value. He spend a lot of money on the infrastructure in Rome (new buildings).
The situation naturally attracted a lot of persons (like Lazzarelli and other poets), which wanted to make her life by papal grace. The "high renaissance" made its way with a dance on the vulcano, which erupted with the reformation
and a Sacco di Roma.
The situation was naturally complex. The year 1471 is the year, when the printing press "exploded" to become a relevant "new media". A totally new time appeared, with new winners and losers.
Cosmico, Chronico and Iliaco .... in Accademia Romana
As you likely have seen, the termini "Cosmico" and "Iliaco" and "Chronico" didn't get a great attention (we don't find much to them in the search engine). In the early time of the Accademia two of them were used as nick names (Latin "nick names" or "pseudonyms" became popular then).
Niccolo Lelio Cosmico
http://www.treccani.it/enciclopedia/nic ... rafico%29/
For the "Chronico" use as "nick name" we had once a poem inside the Accademia Romana development (1461-68), where "Chronico" appeared without explanation, who this should be.
Trying to find it now I get negative results, so for the moment that's a "fiction". At least it's clear for "Niccolo Lelio Cosmico".
About "Niccolo Lelio Cosmico" ...
http://www.giovannidallorto.com/biograf ... smico.html
"Rossi ha pubblicato anche un epigramma latino anonimo in cui Cosmico è accusato di sodomizzare il poeta maccheronico Tìfi Odasi (sec. XV-1492)"
... and other notes (the page collects notes about homosexuality in 15th century)
Ah, I found it (the searched poem):
Litterulis denis, moneo, mercabere culum,
bis quater acceptis, qui negat esse tuus.
Has quoque si renuit, "bis denas accipe" dicas
et totidem iungas, si satis esse negat.
Mille licet tribuas, emitur bene, Cronice, culus,
dum satis ad pretium scripta papyrus erit.
(from the same domain)
text by Filippo Buonaccorsi ("Callimaco Esperiente", 1437-1496), who had an interesting life, cause he escaped the papal persecutions 1468.
He went to Poland and had later contact to Conrad Celtis (a man of high importance in Germany).
Looking at the same domain for "Iliaco" I get this ...
Settimuleio Campano (il Campanino, sec. XV-1469/71)
Iliaco similem pedicas nocte ministrum,
podice iam lasso deperit ipse puer.
Tu quoque, dum uigilas natibus coniunctus eburnis
et capiunt dentis lactea colla notam,
non dormis somnumque negas tibi: cogeris ergo,
proh pudor, in medio stertere, Cinna, die.
At the same page I found a reference to "Cosmicum"
Myrtea dicentur te iudice pallida, cum tu
videris Aeacidae roscida labra mei.
Campano had some role as teacher of Lazzarelli in the late 1460s.
New: Martial detection
Looking a little bit around, I found this for "Iliaco" ...
an epigramm from Martial, a Spanish poet, who came to Rome in 64 AD, c. 1400 years before the Accademia Romana.
Here he lived 35 years, before returning to Spain, a longer time as a "poor poet". He might have well have had some interests by the new "poor poets", which formed in Rome during the 1460s in the Accademia Romana.
"Iliaco" close to "Ganymede" (the male lover of Zeus) might have gotten some attention.
Sacrobosco didn't use "Iliaco", but "Heliaco", as far I'm informed and remember. Somebody changed the word.
My Latin is not good enough to understand this poem, and to make much of it. I saw the suggestion "colicky" for this word "Iliaco" in another epigram, but I've the suspicion, that this makes no sense in the context.
Book 3, epigramm 39
Iliaco similem puerum, Faustine, ministro
iliacus, iliaca, iliacum colicky
similis, simile, similior -or -us, simillimus -a -umlike, similar, resembling
puer, pueri Mboy, lad, young man; servant; child
faustus, fausta, faustumfavorable; auspicious; lucky, prosperous
ministro, ministrare, ministravi, ministratusattend, serve, furnish; supply
lusca Lycoris amat. Quam bene lusca uidet!
luscus, lusca, luscum - one-eyed
amo, amare, amavi, amatus - love, like; fall in love with; be fond of; have a tendency to
bene, melius, optime - well, very, quite, rightly, agreeably, cheaply, in good style; better; best
luscus, lusca, luscum - one-eyed
As a translation suggestion I get ...
XXXIX. TO FAUSTINUS.
The one-eyed Lycoris, Faustinus, has set her affections on a boy like the Trojan shepherd. How well the one-eyed Lycoris sees!
Well, who is the "Trojan shepherd"? Is this Ganymede again ?
I need help here.
I find this ...
http://books.google.de/books?id=KBoEG6G ... al&f=false
... "The Garden of Priapus" , where the author Amy Richlin had stumbled about the same passage as me. And comes to similar "erotic" conclusions.
Martial in Rome
A statements of the wiki article:
"The works of Martial became highly valued on their discovery by the Renaissance, whose writers often saw them as sharing an eye for the urban vices of their own times."
Inspired by this I looked at the search engine for "Wiegendrucke" ...
... I get only one result for 15th century, and this is ...
http://www.gesamtkatalogderwiegendrucke ... ALDDOM.htm
... who more than once published about Martial, but in essence it's this ...
05887 Calderinus, Domitius: Commentarii in Martialem. Daran: Defensio ad Corelium. Mit Beig. von M. Lucidus Phosphorus. Rom: Johann Gensberg auf Kosten u. Veranlassung des Johannes Aloisius Tuscanus, 22.III.1474. 2°
Other editions followed, most all in the same year.
Domitius Calderinus cooperated with Sweynheim in the Ptolemy edition of 1478, which is of general importance for the Mantegna Tarocchi research. The cooperation started 1473.
Calderinus was very close to the inner circle of the papal court in that time.
Johann Gensberg made 46 known prints in 1473-75 in Rome.
M. Lucidus Phospherus, later bishop of Segni, added a poem.
Here I read ...
http://www.christies.com/lotfinder/LotD ... ID=3035955
..., that Georgius Merula .... "a year after bringing Calderino's Martial commentary on the market, De Colonia and Manthen published Georgius Merula's edition of Martial's epigrams
(H 10812)" ... also wrote about Martial's epigrams.
Merula had been Lazzarelli's instructor in his time in Venice.
Well, thanks, that you made me to look this up again. From that, what I read this afternoon it looks to me, as if "Iliaco" is a conscious variant on Sacrobosco's "Heliaco" for very personal reasons, likely inspired by specific passages written by Martial, which possibly in the "Roman Accademia scene" were just "very popular".
A further research problem
Somewhere I saw, that Martial's epigrams showed up at a specific time during Renaissance (I don't know for the moment, at which time). It might be interesting to know this time.
The Wiegendrucke give only the printing date, somewhere the text must have been detected (at least I assume this for the moment).