Re: What are the documents for Marziano's dates?

#411
I followed the theme of the Black Venus and crossed different other themes.

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Theme: Black Madonna

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_Madonna
Research into the Black Madonna phenomenon is limited due to a wide consensus among scholars that the dark-skinned aspect was unintentional.[citation needed]
This goes in the direction, that the black color was not intended.
Begg has a different view: he links the recurring refrain from the Song of Solomon, ‘I am black, but I am beautiful’ to the Queen of Sheba.
Monique Scheer, one of these scholars, attributes the importance of the dark-skinned depiction to its connection with authenticity. The reason for this connection is the perceived age of the figures and the idea that these depictions are more accurate to historical Mary, since many of the works are eastern in origin and since Mary herself likely had dark skin.
Generally the first wave of Black Madonnas is given to 13th century, when crusaders still were in Eastern regions. They often looked as made with Byzantine style.

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Theme: Aphrodite came from the East.
Syncretism
In many cases Atargatis, ‘Ashtart, and other goddesses who once had independent cults and mythologies became fused to such an extent as to be indistinguishable. This fusion is exemplified by the Carnion temple, which is probably identical with the famous temple of ‘Ashtart at Ashtaroth-Karnaim. Atargatis generally appears as the wife of Hadad. They are the protecting deities of the community. Atargatis, wearing a mural crown, is the ancestor the royal house, the founder of social and religious life, the goddess of generation and fertility (hence the prevalence of phallic emblems), and the inventor of useful appliances. Not unnaturally she is identified with the Greek Aphrodite. By the conjunction of these many functions, despite originating as a sea deity analogous to Amphitrite, she becomes ultimately a great nature-goddess, analogous to Cybele and Rhea: In one aspect she typifies the protection of water in producing life; in another, the universal of other-earth;[27] in a third (influenced, no doubt, by Chaldean astrology), the power of Destiny.[14] She was also identified with Hera by Lucian in his De Dea Syria.
The Greek origin of Aphrodite was located at the island Cypern, close to Syria and Libanon and Minor Asia. Naturally one might suspect, that the falling genital of Uranos dropped somewhere there in the water.
THE AETIOLOGICAL CHAPTER: How EUNUCHISM ARISES

Eunuchism means male castration. The term arises from two Greek words meaning "bed" and "guarding" and indicates the principal function of male castrates in ancient times. The ancient Greeks used also a terrm meaning "cut", which in its Latinized form "spado" was used by the Romans.
Eunuchs were employed by ancient Eastern peoples such as the Assyrians, the Babylonians, the Chinese and some African peoples as special slaves or servants. Their asexuality, which, however, was not always complete, fitted them for employment as guardians and servants in harems. They were placed also in other confidential posts because, as a passager in Xenophon's Cyropaedia indicates, being distinct from the rest of mankind they could not be distracted by sexual considerations and adventures and would be more firmly attached to the person of their master. Such slaves were procured from prisoners of war, whom their victors castrated as a symbol of complete subjugation.
This war castration was much in vogue among pre-Hellenic barbarians, as shown by ancient sculptures and paintings such as those of Karnak. Later, parents used to castrate their children so as to obtain for them a post and livelihood in the leading families.
Castration for this purpose, a distinct manifestation of Eastern barbarism, was unknown among the ancient Greeks, and also among the Romans as long as thev were under the influence of Greek civilization. In Imperial Rome, however, after Rome had come into contact with the Orient, eunuchs were introduced into the city, and as Gibbon writes:
"The eunuchs who in the time of Augustus had been abhorrent as the monstrous retinue of the Egyptian Queen, were gradually admitted into the families of matrons and senators and of the emperors themselves."' They exerted a certain role. Claudius heaped riches and rewards on his freedman eunuch Posides, who employed his wealth in building ......
https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10 ... 4603900816

From Minor Asia, close to the Cypern of Aphrodite, we have mythologies with eunuchism. Attis and Kybele in the first row. Also Adonis with the double pair Aphrodite/Persephone.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Attis

As I've read, Pausanias and Herodot already had the opinion, that Aphrodite came from the East.

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Contradictions to "Aphrodite comes from the East"

German Wiki: A German writer for the Pauly, Georg Ferdinand Dümmler, contradicts the theory of a development of the Aphrodite cult from the East and suggests an Pelasgian origin. The argumentation is very complex and also for German readers very cryptic.

Wiki .... https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aphrodite
Herkunft des Kultes
Antike Schriftsteller wie Herodot[43] und Pausanias[44] sahen den Ursprung des Kults der Aphrodite Urania in Phönizien bzw. dem vorderen Orient. Als mögliche Ursprungsorte des Kults wurden dabei Assyrien und das phönizische Askalon, als frühe Manifestationsorte in der griechischen Welt Paphos auf Zypern und die ionische Insel Kythera hervorgehoben. Dagegen ging Georg Ferdinand Dümmler (1894) in seinem Artikel für Paulys Realencyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft, gestützt auf die Untersuchung der Kultstätten, von einem thessalischen Ursprung des nach ihm zunächst pelasgischen Aphrodite-Kults aus.[45]
Begin of the argumentation ...
Aphrodite (Ἀφροδίτη, Ἀφροδείτη, aiol. Ἀφρόδιτα [Hs. Ἀφροδῖτα, corr. Bekker] nach Choiroboskos 1200; vgl. Ahrens Dial. I 109, 2, einmal Ἀφορδιτα, kret. Inschr. Cauer Delect.² nr. 121, 26, ursprüngliche Wortform wohl das kyprische Ἀφοροδίτα; vgl. M. Schmidt Kypr. Inschr. T. XIX 7 Ἀφοροδοδοσιω, S. 529; auch Aprodita Bezzenb. Beitr. X 105; Ἁβροδίτη = ἁβροδίαιτος spielend nur Schol. Eur. Troad. 990: οὐκ οἶδε πολεμικὰ ἔργα; die anderen alten Etymologien s. a. E.), eine ursprünglich in Thessalien heimische, dort wahrscheinlich von dem Volksstamm der Pelasger zuerst verehrte und von diesem in Verbindung mit Aiolern nach Kleinasien, mit Argeiern über Boiotien nach Attika, aus Arkadien nach Kypros verbreitete Göttin. Die hypokoristische Verschleifung des Namens in Thessalien und die daselbst und zwar an den verschiedensten Orten nachweisbare Weihung eines besonderen Monats an die Göttin, zwei anderwärts nur ausnahmsweise beobachtete Erscheinungen (vgl. Thrakien, Bithynien, Iasos, Kypros) beweisen, wie breit und tief ihr Kult im thessalischen Volkstum wurzelt.
etc ....
The thesis of Dümmler was new to me, but I think, that it is possibly of interest. My notes to this:

Filippo Maria (Michelino) used Jupiter as the father of Venus. In the Hesiod interpretation (which I normally prefer) Uranos as genital is the father of Aphrodite. When Jupiter is noted as father of Aphrodite in the mythological texts, then the mother is Dione, which is called a female Titan (but not in the major Hesiod interpretation, which don't note her; I mean the model with 6 male and 6 female Titans). Occasionally the name Dione is even used for Aphrodite.

Zeus and Dione had an oracle in Dodona. This is called the oldest and second only to the influence of the oracle of Delphi.
There were (probably) 2 locations named Dodona.
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The unknown Dodona is said to have been close to the mountain Olympos. It belonged to Thessaly. The other (with the oracle) was in the Western mountains. There some ruins were found, which were identified as the oracle.
https://www.google.com/maps/place/Dodon ... 20.7735053

Here is a story about the origin of the cult.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dodona
Herodotus[30] (Histories 2:54–57) was told by priests at Egyptian Thebes in the 5th century BCE "that two priestesses had been carried away from Thebes by Phoenicians; one, they said they had heard was taken away and sold in Libya, the other in Hellas; these women, they said, were the first founders of places of divination in the aforesaid countries." The simplest analysis of the quote is: Egypt, for Greeks as well as for Egyptians, was a spring of human culture of all but immeasurable antiquity. This mythic element says that the oracles at the oasis of Siwa in Libya and of Dodona in Epirus were equally old, but similarly transmitted by Phoenician culture, and that the seeresses – Herodotus does not say "sibyls" – were women.

Herodotus follows with what he was told by the prophetesses, called peleiades ("doves") at Dodona:

that two black doves had come flying from Thebes in Egypt, one to Libya and one to Dodona; the latter settled on an oak tree, and there uttered human speech, declaring that a place of divination from Zeus must be made there; the people of Dodona understood that the message was divine, and therefore established the oracular shrine. The dove which came to Libya told the Libyans (they say) to make an oracle of Ammon; this also is sacred to Zeus. Such was the story told by the Dodonaean priestesses, the eldest of whom was Promeneia and the next Timarete and the youngest Nicandra; and the rest of the servants of the temple at Dodona similarly held it true.
And Herodot himself.
54.
But about the oracles in Hellas, and that one which is in Libya, the Egyptians give the following account. The priests of Zeus of Thebes told me that two priestesses had been carried away from Thebes by Phoenicians; one, they said they had heard was taken away and sold in Libya, the other in Hellas; these women, they said, were the first founders of places of divination in the aforesaid countries. [2] When I asked them how it was that they could speak with such certain knowledge, they said in reply that their people had sought diligently for these women, and had never been able to find them, but had learned later the story which they were telling me.
55.
That, then, I heard from the Theban priests; and what follows, the prophetesses of Dodona say: that two black doves had come flying from Thebes in Egypt, one to Libya and one to Dodona; [2] the latter settled on an oak tree, and there uttered human speech, declaring that a place of divination from Zeus must be made there; the people of Dodona understood that the message was divine, and therefore established the oracular shrine. [3] The dove which came to Libya told the Libyans (they say) to make an oracle of Ammon; this also is sacred to Zeus. Such was the story told by the Dodonaean priestesses, the eldest of whom was Promeneia and the next Timarete and the youngest Nicandra; and the rest of the servants of the temple at Dodona similarly held it true.
56.
But my own belief about it is this. If the Phoenicians did in fact carry away the sacred women and sell one in Libya and one in Hellas, then, in my opinion, the place where this woman was sold in what is now Hellas, but was formerly called Pelasgia, was Thesprotia; [2] and then, being a slave there, she established a shrine of Zeus under an oak that was growing there; for it was reasonable that, as she had been a handmaid of the temple of Zeus at Thebes , she would remember that temple in the land to which she had come. [3] After this, as soon as she understood the Greek language, she taught divination; and she said that her sister had been sold in Libya by the same Phoenicians who sold her.
57.
I expect that these women were called “doves” by the people of Dodona because they spoke a strange language, and the people thought it like the cries of birds; [2] then the woman spoke what they could understand, and that is why they say that the dove uttered human speech; as long as she spoke in a foreign tongue, they thought her voice was like the voice of a bird. For how could a dove utter the speech of men? The tale that the dove was black signifies that the woman was Egyptian1. [3]
The fashions of divination at Thebes of Egypt and at Dodona are like one another; moreover, the practice of divining from the sacrificed victim has also come from Egypt.

http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/tex ... apter%3D54 .... ff

Well, this story of Dodona knows "2 black doves". Filippo Maria Visconti (or Martiano) had 2 doves (dove and turtle dove) for their Michelino deck. Dodona had Zeus paired with a Dione, who either was the mother of Aphrodite/Venus or Aphrodite/Venus herself. Filippo Maria knew Zeus and Dione/Aphrodite/Venus from his ancestor trees.

... that are strange accidents.

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Filippo Maria Visconti got Genova in 1421 ...
1421 2 novembre: Assedio e conquista di Genova da parte dei milanesi guidati dal Carmagnola.
storiadimilano.it

The possession of Genova formed a reason, why Filippo Maria was confronted with Greek circumstances.

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https://www.wildwinds.com/coins/greece/ ... iae/i.html
Thespiai, Boeotia, AR hemidrachm, early-mid 4th C. BC. 2.91 g. Boeotian shield / ΘEΣ beneath head of Aphrodite Melainis right, vertical crescent facing left in right field. SNG Cop 404; Pozzi 1460; Weber 3316; BMC 10; BCD Boiotia 607; Traite III 366.
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https://nomosag.com/default.aspx?page=u ... pe=auction
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Huck
http://trionfi.com

Re: What are the documents for Marziano's dates?

#412
Very interesting. Thanks for pulling those threads together. I especially like the Black Doves of Thebes, and beautiful Aphrodite Melainis.

Boccaccio knows the eastern or Cyprian origin of Venus very well. The book Genealogia deorum gentilium is dedicated to the king of Cyprus, Hugo IV, and Boccaccio addresses him in the text frequently, especially in the sections on Venus, since she is so deeply associated with the island.
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Re: Dark-skinned Venus, Aeneas' red hair

#413
Ross G. R. Caldwell wrote:
23 Jul 2020, 18:01
D. M. (Daniel Meredith) Bueno de Mesquita, Giangaleazzo Visconti, Duke of Milan (1351-1402) (1941), says on page 12
"No pictorial representation of Giangaleazzo in his youth has survived; but we are told that he was tall, well built, and strikingly handsome. He had the reddish hair of the Visconti, and he probably already wore the short, pointed beard which is made familiar to us in later representations."
Bueno de Mesquita does not note any other examples of the generalization. Aeneas, just above Venus in the genealogy, is shown with red hair. Is this trying to show that the Visconti inherited their "reddish hair" from Venus and Aeneas?
Gian Galeazzo's "reddish hair" is also mentioned in the most popular source for Visconti history in English, Dorothy Muir's A History of Milan Under the Visconti (1924). Since 1924 is public domain in the United States, but not in Europe, Americans can see it on Google Books https://books.google.fr/books/about/A_H ... edir_esc=y or page by slow page at Hathi Trust https://catalog.hathitrust.org/api/volu ... 27896.html I took a proxy server and copied every page for my own reading. Muir is clearly the majority source, besides references to Tarot, in Stuart Kaplan's account of the Visconti family in the Encyclopedia of Tarot, volume II, pages 53-85. Muir's history is not a scholarly monograph, although her narrative's detail and accuracy shows that she could have written one, which would have been three or four times longer than its current 248 pages. She is also quite sympathetic to the Visconti - with the normal exception of Giovanni Maria, for whom no excuses can be made (I think Giovio does his best), which is refreshing given the normal "mad and cruel" you find in English, and in most earlier Italian writers. It is shame Muir has not been reprinted, but now some print-on-demand places do it, with the normal caveats of bad scanning. It seems worth it to republish it properly, and updated with annotations, now that it is public domain.

In regards to his "reddish hair," Muir makes an irresistible observation -
In person Giangaleazzo was extremely handsome. He was very tall, over six feet in height, with the hair of reddish-gold common amongst the Visconti. He wore a short, pointed beard, and his eyes were a clear grey. When his tomb was opened in 1889, his skeleton was that of a tall, splendidly developed man, and the short, pointed beard was still reddish-gold.
(pp. 89-90)

What? I had never heard of his tomb being opened before, so naturally I had to find out about it, and this beard still visible.

I found a report from six years later, by a participant of the exhumation, Giovanni Zoja, “Intorno alle ossa di Giovanni Galeazzo Visconti,” Bollettino Scientifico, anno XVII, no. 1 (Pavia, 1895)
https://archive.org/details/bollettinos ... 1/mode/2up
Come è noto il sarcofago del primo Duca di Milano fu aperto con solennità il giorno 2 aprile 1889 (1), ed io mi recai alla Certosa la mattina del giorno susseguente, accompagnato dal Direttore della Scuola di Pittura di Pavia Prof. Pietro Michis (2), dal Primo Settore dell'Istituto Anatomico Dottor Giuseppe Soffiantini, e dal servente preparatore dell'Istituto stesso, Angelo Giani.

(1)Vedi: Le salme di Gian Galeazzo Visconti e di Isabella di Valois. - Relazione all'onorevole Ministro della Pubblica Istruzione del Prof. Carlo Magenta (La Perseveranza del 17 aprile 1889, p. 10603).
(2) Il signor Prof. Michis da me pregato era venuto alla Certosa per fare qualche disegno che mi importasse, siccome però il signor Prof. Magenta aveva dichiarato a noi che aveva già fatto fotografare gli avanzi del Duca, così si credette superfluo il disegno. Ciò non toglie cheio non sia egualmente grato alla premurosa cortesia usatami dallo stesso amico Prof. Michis.
Le fotografie poi, che mi furono ripetute volte promesse dal Magenta, sfortunatamente non le ho mai viste; ed ora, dopo la morte del Magenta non so dove siano nè chi le possieda. Veramente al principio di quest'anno una fotografia del teschio di Gian Galeazzo mi venne mostrata dal Custode della Certosa signor Cesare Rigoni, che parmi eguale a quella che l'architetto signor Luca Beltrami riporta a pag. 38 della sua interessante e recentissima pubblicazione – La Certosa di Pavia. - Milano, Ulrico Hoepli, MDCCCXCV. - Ma di questa fotografia io non avrei potuto giovarmi utilmente per il mio scopo, devo quindi accontentarmi di fotografare e disegnare il modello in gesso scrupolosamente levato dal signor Maestri, come dirò più avanti.
As is well known, the sarcophagus of the first Duke of Milan was opened with solemnity on April 2, 1889 (1), and I went to the Certosa on the morning of the following day, accompanied by the Director of the School of Painting of Pavia, Prof. Pietro Michis (2), the First Sector of the Anatomical Institute, Dr. Giuseppe Soffiantini, and the preparatory servant (?) of the same Institute, Angelo Giani.

(1) See: “The remains of Gian Galeazzo Visconti and Isabella di Valois.” - Report to the Honourable Minister of Education of Prof. Carlo Magenta (La Perseveranza of April 17, 1889, p. 10603).
(2) Prof. Michis, whom I had asked, had come to the Certosa to make some drawings that I needed, but Prof. Magenta had declared to us that he had already had the Duke's remains photographed, so drawing was deemed superfluous. This does not mean that I am not equally grateful for the thoughtful courtesy shown by the same friend Prof. Michis.
The photographs, which were promised to me several times by Magenta, unfortunately I have never seen; and now, after Magenta's death, I do not know where they are or who owns them. Actually, at the beginning of this year, a photograph of Gian Galeazzo's skull was shown to me by the Custodian of the Certosa, Mr. Cesare Rigoni, which looks like the one that the architect Mr. Luca Beltrami shows on page 38 of his interesting and very recent publication
- La Certosa di Pavia. - Milan, Ulrico Hoepli, MDCCCXCV. - But I would not have been able to usefully use this photograph for my purpose, so I have to be content with photographing and drawing the plaster model scrupulously taken by Mr. Maestri, as I will say later.

(Luca Beltrami, La Certosa di Pavia

1895 edition, page 38
https://archive.org/details/lacertosadi ... 8/mode/2up
1907 edition, page 40
https://archive.org/details/lacertosadi ... 0/mode/2up )
Contribuisce pure alla constatazione dell'identità personale il colore tra il biondo e il fulvo d'una ciocca di capelli rinvenuti nella tomba presso il suo cranio.(2)
(2) Giovanni Galeazzo era d'alta statura e di bionda capigliatura. (Magenta, I Visconti e gli Sforza, ecc. Op. cit. vol. 1., pag. 292).
Quella spiegata prominenza del mento che osservasi nelle effigie del Conte di Virtù é, come abbiamo veduto, manifesta nello scheletro.
The colour, between blond and tawny, of a lock of hair found in the grave near his skull, also contributes to the ascertainment of the personal identity (2).

(2) Giovanni Galeazzo was tall and had blond hair. (Magenta, I Visconti e gli Sforza nel Castello di Pavia. op. cit. vol. 1., p. 292).
That unexplained prominence of the chin that I observed in the effigy of the Count of Virtue is, as we have seen, evident in the skeleton.
Since he qualifies blond with "fulvo," French "fauve," English "tawny" or "fawn," I assume it is a lighter rather than a darker shade, but not, in any case, bright blond.

This passage by Zoja seems to be where Muir got the idea that Gian Galeazzo's beard was still visible (perhaps she misremembered the sense of Zoja's remarks on "caratteristica prominenza del mento," the characteristic prominence of the chin," as a beard rather a bone).

Zoja's drawing from the plaster cast, showing the chin prominence, but clearly no beard


http://www.rosscaldwell.com/marzianotex ... oskull.jpg

Beltrami's photograph of the skull, the only photograph yet that I can find from this 1889 exhumation directed by Magenta:


http://www.rosscaldwell.com/marzianotex ... cranio.jpg

Also clearly no beard in this photograph, probably taken on the same day as the exhumation, 2 April 1889, by Magenta's photographer,

This prominent chin is very clear in Michelino's medallion for Gian Galeazzo in BnF Latin 5888 -


http://www.rosscaldwell.com/marzianotex ... at5888.jpg

So we are left with the "reddish-brown" colour of the skull, and the lock of hair found near the skull, which Zoja described as "tra il biondo e il fulvo," between blond and tawny.

Alas, no "reddish-gold" beard still sticking to his chin, but we have at last found the evidence for Bueno de Mesquita's generalization about the "reddish hair of the Visconti," and perhaps a reason why Aeneas is given red hair in Sacco's genealogy.

However typical tawny hair might have been for the Visconti, Decembrio, Vita 50, says that Filippo Maria had black hair, "capillo nigro," and "he wore it long in the back" (ac demisso pone cervicem). This seems to have been before 1440 at least, since Pisanello's medal seems to show clearly enough that he was either bald or shaven.
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Re: What are the documents for Marziano's dates?

#414
Huck wrote,
I followed the theme of the Black Venus and crossed different other themes.

***************

Theme: Black Madonna

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_Madonna
Research into the Black Madonna phenomenon is limited due to a wide consensus among scholars that the dark-skinned aspect was unintentional.[citation needed]
This goes in the direction, that the black color was not intended.
Begg has a different view: he links the recurring refrain from the Song of Solomon, ‘I am black, but I am beautiful’ to the Queen of Sheba.
Ian Begg, The Cult of the Black Virgin, on Aphrodite:
https://books.google.com/books?id=e0fXA ... =aphrodite

I don't have p. 45. P. 62 is just the quote from Apuleius on Isis's identification with various goddesses. P. 69:
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BlackVirginExcerpts-page-014-2.jpg
(196.86 KiB) Not downloaded yet

The silver-painted one in Bucharest may be of interest.

Re: What are the documents for Marziano's dates?

#416
mikeh wrote:
11 Aug 2020, 03:59

Ian Begg, The Cult of the Black Virgin, on Aphrodite:
https://books.google.com/books?id=e0fXA ... =aphrodite

I don't have p. 45. P. 62 is just the quote from Apuleius on Isis's identification with various goddesses. P. 69:
Image
BlackVirginExcerpts-page-014-2.jpg

The silver-painted one in Bucharest may be of interest.
Thanks, Mike. It turns out I actually have this book!

The Beggs (Eann and wife, Deike) are passionate about the subject, and provide an invaluable gazeteer. But the book is spoiled by over-reliance on authors like Gerard de Sède, one of the "surrealist" figures around the Pierre Plantard Rennes-le-Chäteau hoax, that started the Holy Blood Holy Grail myth. I hold this to be the most powerful myth of modern times, since every step of its creation and diffusion can be traced, and its influence is pervasive, profound, and indelible, taken for granted these days by people who have no idea how recent it is. Most importantly, it had already taken root outside of the speculations of Baigent, Leigh, and LIncoln before the founding documents were admitted to be forgeries and deliberate hoaxing.

An analogy is like using Robert Graves as a source for Greek myth. Not just The Greek Myths, but also The White Goddess. Or, to go further back, to use Frazer as a reliable guide.

In other words, there is a lot of solid and useful material, but the book must be used with caution, and any assertion verified.
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Re: What are the documents for Marziano's dates?

#417
Huck wrote:
11 Aug 2020, 08:42
I get this with "Sfanta Vineri" (? sounds like Santa Venus ?) ...
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https://ro.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biserica_ ... _din_Zalău
https://ro.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biserica_ ... _Zalău.jpg

... and get these pictures with much colors at google.
https://www.google.com/search?q=sfanta+ ... NMNtg-5-3M
The church is not at Bukarest, but also in Romania.
Probably correct, but I can't find any Black Virgin after hundreds of pictures.
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Re: What are the documents for Marziano's dates?

#419
Yes, that's what Google Translate says -
The Good Friday Herasca Church, the symbol of Bucharest, was one of the most beautiful Churches of the Capital. The history of the settlement dates back to the 13th century. The Holy Friday Herasca Church was famous for the presence in this place of the miracle-working icon of Saint Parascheva, popularly called Holy Friday, to which believers came to pray from distant places. The place of worship was considered an oasis of peace and purification for the people of Bucharest, a place of rest and prayer for visitors. But since June 1987, the Holy Friday Herasca Church has ceased to exist on the spiritual map of Bucharest. The construction works of the new Holy Friday Church in Bucharest are in full swing. The new church is 150 meters high from the former place. The cornerstone of the new church was laid in March 2008 by His Beatitude Patriarch Daniel. When it is ready, the new Sfanta Vineri Herasca church will look the same as the one demolished by Nicolae Ceausescu's order, having the same dimensions.
Hopefully the Virgin "with a face as black as coal" has survived. She was surely photographed before 1987, though.
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